What is the difference between HDD and SSD?

All spo-books can be configured as desired and can be ordered with an HDD or SSD. This brings many customers to the scratch which choice is the best for them: The standard 500 gigabyte sized HDD or the more expensive SSD? We want to bring a little light into the darkness.

What means HDD?

The term HDD stands for “hard disk drive”. For simplicity it is often referred to as a hard drive. An HDD is composed of many mechanical parts. In the storage process, the data is written on the surface of one or more rotating magnetic platters. Therefore a reading head is moving – similar to a record player – back and forth.

Hard drives have been around since the 50s and are until today often installed by default as a storage medium in PCs. With the emergence of the SSD this has changed. These were in the early days extremely expensive and were only used for very specific applications. Anyway they have now become much more affordable and due to their advantages are increasingly used even at home.

What is an SSD?

The term SSD stands for "Solid State Disk" or "Solid State Drive", which can also be described as a semiconductor memory. An SSD is not mechanical but an electronic memory. Unlike the rotating platters from the HDD you can imagine the SSD like an USB flash drive.

Which advantages can I expect from an SSD?

The probably biggest advantage is that an SSD boots and works much faster because it runs electronically and does not constantly have to move a reading head back and forth. Although it is faster, the SSD has much lower energy consumption than a conventional hard drive. Who wants his PC to run completely silent and therefore chooses a passive cooled system, should also decide for an SSD. Thanks to the absence of moving parts it works without a sound.

But there’s more to come: It is also much more robust, as the mechanical drives of an HDD break  a lot easier if dropped. Likewise it also stands an extended temperature range. Thanks to its ruggedness the SSD is still running, even under concussions or vibration. Hard drives often have the protection mechanism to stop working as soon as the running PC is moved. For instance this could be the case if a laptop is carried around or if a PC is installed in a vehicle, like our MOVE-series. To prevent the reading head from striking the platter, the HDD stops its operation cautionary. With an SSD this cannot happen. Since it has no moving parts, it works without problems even in rough circumstances.

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10 Aug 2016 Array ( [id] => 198 [title] => What means SLC, MLC and TLC concerning SSDs? [authorId] => [active] => 1 [shortDescription] => If you have ever wondered what the abbreviations “MLC” and “SLC” concerning SSDs mean, then you will find an answer here. Below we present the different memory types and their characteristics. [description] =>

In another article we have already dealt with the differences between HDDs and SSDs as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Now we want to go into further detail and introduce various types of SSDs.

The terms SLC, MLC and TLC name the type of SSD memory. They tell you how many bits are written on a memory cell of an SSD.

What do the abbreviations mean?

SLC stands for "Single-Level Cell". As the name implies, an SLC cell stores exactly one bit. MLC means "Multi-Level Cell" and indicates that more than one bit per cell can be stored. Normally, these are two bits per cell, because now also TLC ("Triple-Level Cell") with three bits per memory cell has been developed.

Concerning these three types, Single-Level cells have the highest reading and writing speed. They also require less power, are durable, robust and suitable for an extended temperature range. However, they have only a relatively small memory and are quite expensive. Multi-Level Cell SSDs in contrast have a greater storage density and can store a much larger volume of data.

How does the storage density affect the wear?

MLC and TLS SSDs are often criticized for not being durable enough. As more information is stored per cell, the wear is higher than that of SLCs. For comparison: While manufacturers specify a lifetime for Single-Level Cells with 100,000 write cycles, Triple Level Cells only bear 1,000 writing processes. MLCs are at about 5,000 to 10,000 cycles.

This sounds comparatively low, but is usually absolutely sufficient. Thanks to techniques such as wear leveling, almost no one has to worry about the durability of his SSD.

What is wear leveling?

Wear leveling is used to extend the life of an SSD. The technique is often integrated in SSDs.  With an algorithm the write cycles are distributed homogenously, so that all memory cells are equal and that the SSD wears evenly.

This technique is distinguished between dynamic and static wear leveling. The former only distributes dynamic data, thus those that change when something is deleted and something else is saved. To prevent some cells from being described only once, while other cells fail already, static wear leveling algorithms move the static data to other blocks. The dynamic variation is often found in USB flash drives. With SSDs the static wear leveling is most commonly used.

What kind of SSDs does spo-comm sell?

As standard spo-comm offers Multi-Level Cell SSDs in different sizes, since these provide a high storage volume for a reasonable price. Some PCs (such as the WINDBOX and RUGGED series) can also be ordered with a 16 or 32 gigabyte SLC SSD. These are suitable for an extended temperature range of -40 to 85 degrees, but – despite the low storage density – are found in an upper price range.

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know-how
What means SLC, MLC and TLC concerning SSDs?
If you have ever wondered what the abbreviations “MLC” and “SLC” concerning SSDs mean, then you will find an answer here. Below we present the different memory types and their characteristics.
27 Jul 2017 Array ( [id] => 274 [title] => Security: Powerguard SSD [authorId] => [active] => 1 [shortDescription] => In an industrial environment data loss is often a critical point. If you can’t rely on a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for reasons of cost or space, there’s a new possibility to provide more security: with so-called Powerguard SSDs. [description] =>

SSDs with the Powerguard function operate with integrated tantalum capacitors which are permanently charged with 12 volts. In case of an unexpected blackout, the SSD can act as a kind of UPS. The power in the SSD is maintained until all memory processes are completed and the data is saved. Due to this, Powerguard prevents data loss and ensures more security. This is interesting for critical applications in an industrial environment as well as networking and server technology, but also for mobile and in-vehicle solutions.

Powerguard SSD now available at spo-comm

This UPS technology was developed by the storage manufacturer Cervoz, which now offers Powerguard SSDs and mSATAs in various sizes. From now on spo-comm offers a 128 GB Powerguard SSD as a choice for all Mini-PCs in the product range. Other sizes are available upon request.

##Discover Mini-PCs with Powerguard SSD

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know-how
Security: Powerguard SSD
In an industrial environment data loss is often a critical point. If you can’t rely on a uninterruptible power supply (UPS) for reasons of cost or space, there’s a new possibility to provide more security: with so-called Powerguard SSDs.
2 Nov 2016 Array ( [id] => 215 [title] => Was ist RAID? [authorId] => [active] => 1 [shortDescription] => Bei PCs mit mehreren Festplatten besteht immer die Möglichkeit eines RAID-Verbundes. Was es mit RAID 0 und 1 eigentlich genau auf sich hat und welche Vor- und Nachteile die verschiedenen Level mit sich bringen, klären wir hier. [description] =>

Diee Abkürzung RAID steht für „Redundant Array of Independent Disks“, was auf Deutsch „Redundante Anordnung unabhängiger Festplatten“ bedeutet. Redundanz bedeutet im technischen Zusammenhang, dass zusätzliche funktional gleiche oder vergleichbare Teile eines Systems vorhanden sind, die im normalen Betrieb nicht benötigt werden. Kommt es zu einem Ausfall, können diese einspringen oder, wenn sie bereits parallel mitlaufen, die Arbeit fortan alleine erledigen.

Ein RAID ist ein Verbund aus mindestens zwei Massenspeichern (Festplatten oder SSDs), die zusammenarbeiten. Größe und Typ des Speichermediums sollten dabei identisch sein. Die verschiedenen RAID Level (z.B. RAID 0 oder RAID 1) unterscheiden sich in der Größe der Speicherkapazität und der Sicherheit der gespeicherten Daten.

 

Hardware oder Software RAID

 

Das RAID kann auf unterschiedliche Weise hergestellt werden. Beim Hardware RAID ist ein extra Mikroprozessor, ein sogenannter RAID-Controller, notwendig. Der Chip befindet sich oft in der Nähe des Speichers und organisiert die Datenverteilung. Der Hauptprozessor wird dabei nicht belastet. In größeren Netzwerkumgebungen, wie in Rechenzentren, werden oft externe RAID-Systeme eingesetzt.

 

Ein Software RAID ist komplett softwareseitig organisiert. Das RAID kann bereits im BIOS implementiert werden, um anschließend das Betriebssystem darauf zu installieren. So ist dieses gesichert. Alternativ kann der RAID-Verbund auch erst im Betriebssystem eingerichtet werden, dann profitiert dieses jedoch nicht vom RAID. Da kein spezieller RAID-Controller vorhanden ist, werden alle Berechnungen auf dem Hauptprozessor durchgeführt, welcher dadurch, je nach Anwendung, stärker belastet wird.

 

RAID 0

 

Beim RAID 0 werden zwei oder mehr Speichermedien zu einem logischen Laufwerk vereint. Diese können mit einer erhöhten Geschwindigkeit arbeiten. Dazu werden die Festplatten in gleich große Blöcke aufgeteilt, welche dann abwechselnd, wie im Reißverschlussverfahren angeordnet werden. Diese Technik, durch welche auf alle Platten parallel zugegriffen werden kann, wird als „striping“ (dt. „in Streifen zerlegen“) bezeichnet. Der Vorteil des RAID 0 ist die Beschleunigung des Datentransfers. Ein Nachteil ist die fehlende Sicherheit: Fällt eine Platte aus, können Daten nicht mehr vollständig wiederhergestellt werden. Daher ist es nur dann zu empfehlen wenn Ausfallsicherheit keine Rolle spielt. Da beim RAID 0 keine Redundanz vorhanden ist, handelt es sich streng genommen nicht um ein RAID, sondern nur um ein „Array of Independent Disks“.

 

RAID 1

 

Eine hohe Ausfallsicherheit gewährt das RAID 1 mit der Technik des Mirroring bzw. Spiegelung. Dabei werden die Daten simultan auf alle beteiligten (in der Regel zwei) Festplatten geschrieben. Dank zwei identischer Platten besteht nun volle Redundanz. Das heißt im Klartext: Sollte eine der beiden Komponenten ausfallen, so kann die verbleibende Festplatte weiterhin alle Daten liefern. Ein RAID 1 ist allerdings kein Ersatz für eine Datensicherung. Fehler, wie zum Beispiel Viren oder versehentliches Löschen von Dateien, übertragen sich augenblicklich auf die Spiegelplatte. Die gesamte Speicherkapazität beim RAID 1 ist so groß, wie die kleinste beteiligte Festplatte.

 

RAID 5

 

Für ein RAID 5 werden mindestens drei Speichermedien benötigt. Es bietet eine erhöhte Geschwindigkeit und etwas Sicherheit. Wie beim RAID 0 werden die Daten blockweise auf alle Laufwerke verteilt. Zusätzlich werden auf jeder Platte die notwendigen Informationen zur Wiederherstellung der Daten (sogenannte Paritätsdaten) eines anderen Laufwerks gespeichert. Fällt nur eine Festplatte aus, können die Daten wieder hergestellt werden. Die mögliche Speicherkapazität errechnet sich aus der Anzahl der Platten minus eins, multipliziert mit der Kapazität der kleinsten Platte. Bei drei Platten mit jeweils 1 Terabyte Speicher läge diese beispielsweise bei 2 TB.

 

RAID 10

 

Das RAID 10 ist eine Kombination aus 1 und 0. So kann es beide Vorteile verbinden und bietet sowohl mehr Tempo, als auch eine hohe Sicherheit. Es werden mindestens vier Laufwerke benötigt. Jeweils zwei Festplatten werden zum RAID 1 verbunden. Diese Sets werden dann zum RAID 0 zusammengefasst. Diese Variante ist sehr sicher, da in jedem Set eine Platte ausfallen darf. Dafür steht jedoch nur die Hälfte der gesamten Speicherkapazität zur Verfügung.

 

RAID bei spo-comm Mini-PCs

Da für einen RAID-Verbund mindestens zwei Festplatten notwendig sind, ist dieser nur bei bestimmten spo-comm PCs möglich. Dazu gehören das spo-book EXPANDED Q170, spo-book NINETEEN Q170 und spo-book NOVA CUBE Q87. Bei Rückfragen beraten wir Sie gerne. Ansonsten können Sie einfach bei Ihrer Bestellung angeben, wenn RAID 0 oder 1 gewünscht wird.

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detail
Was ist RAID?
Bei PCs mit mehreren Festplatten besteht immer die Möglichkeit eines RAID-Verbundes. Was es mit RAID 0 und 1 eigentlich genau auf sich hat und welche Vor- und Nachteile die verschiedenen Level mit sich bringen, klären wir hier.